Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Applied Science Research, the official publication of the Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Uyo, Nigeria, is published quarterly as a reference source to researchers in the Pharmaceutical, Chemical, Life, Medical and Paramedical Sciences. It is a refereed journal. Statements and opinions herein expressed in the articles and communication are those of the authors and not the Editor(s) and Publisher. The Editor(s) and Publisher disclaim any responsibility or liability for such materials and do not guarantee, warrant, or endorse any product or service advertised in this publication or any claim made by the manufacturer of such products or services.

The Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Applied Science Research is an international open-access journal committed to advancing the field of pharmaceutical sciences and its intersecting disciplines. With a special focus on research of tropical relevance, the journal aims to bridge the gap between traditional pharmaceutical studies and cutting-edge interdisciplinary research encompassing biotechnology, cell and molecular biology, drug utilization, adverse drug events, medical and other life sciences, as well as relevant engineering fields. The journal serves as a dynamic platform for scientists, researchers, healthcare professionals, and the pharmaceutical industry to disseminate and exchange knowledge, fostering a collaborative environment for multidisciplinary research. It emphasizes the importance of integrating diverse perspectives to drive innovation and address complex challenges in the field. In addition to original research papers, the Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Applied Science Research welcomes comprehensive reviews that provide insightful analysis on current topics of special interest and importance in the pharmaceutical and applied sciences domains. By offering an international forum, the journal ensures the communication and critical evaluation of significant data, methods, and findings, contributing to the global discourse in pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines. Through its dedication to open-access publishing, the journal ensures that its content is readily available to a wide audience, facilitating the dissemination of knowledge and supporting the advancement of pharmaceutical sciences on a global scale.